### What is the name of the hypothesis which states that the observed difference is due to sampling errors created by random sampling?

**CHAPTER 21**

**Introduction to the t Test**

1. Example 1 mentions how many possible explanations for the 3-point difference?

2. *What is the name of the hypothesis which states that the observed difference is due to sampling errors created by random sampling?*

3. Which of the following statements is true (circle one)?

A. The t test is used to test the difference between two sample means to determine

statistical significance.

B. The t test is used to test the difference between two population means to determine

statistical significance.

4. If a t test yields a low probability, such as p < .05, what decision is usually made about

the null hypothesis?

5. The larger the sample, the (circle one)

A. more likely the null hypothesis will be rejected.

B. less likely the null hypothesis will be rejected.

6. The smaller the observed difference between two means, the (circle one)

A. more likely the null hypothesis will be rejected.

B. less likely the null hypothesis will be rejected.

7. If there is no variation among members of a population, is it possible to have sampling

errors when sampling from the population?

8. If participants are first paired before being randomly assigned to experimental and control

groups, are the resulting data “independent” or “dependent”?

9. Which type of data tends to have less sampling error (circle one)?

A. Independent

B. Dependent

Notes

1. As indicated in Chapter 20, when a result is